Helpful links:

The Beaver Institute
Provides technical and financial assistance to public and private landowners experiencing beaver conflicts, supporting scientific research, training mitigation professionals, and increasing public appreciation of the beaver’s critical role in creating wetland ecosystems.

Beavers Northwest

Beaver Deceivers International

Cows & Fish Alberta Habitat Management Society

Putting beavers to work (Miistakis Institute/Cows & Fish)

Recommended Reading:

“Eager – The Surprising, Secret Life of Beavers and Why They Matter”, by Ben Goldfarb, 2018. “Eager” is a wonderfully written and entertaining book that blends of in-depth knowledge of beavers and their environmental importance, with many stories about “Beaver Believers” who are committed to promoting beaver coexistence.

“Once they Were Hats” In Search of the Mighty Beaver, by Frances Backhouse, 2016. The history of beavers, their exploitation and comeback by a passionate beaver advocate.

“The Beaver Manifesto”, by Dr. Glynnis Hood, 2011
Dr. Hood has spent many years scientifically studying beavers and their ability to protect the landscape from climate change and drought. A very interesting and educational read.

Scientific studies:

A partial list of literature related to beavers, beaver management, public perception, etc. Prepared by Janice Wong. Last updated August 1, 2019.

Beavers in Captivity

Campbell-Palmer, R., Rosell, F., 2015. Captive Care and Welfare Considerations for Beavers. Zoo Biol. 34, 101–109.

Distribution of Beavers and/or Reintroduction

Bailey, D.R., Dittbrenner, B.J., Yocom, K.P., 2018. Reintegrating the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) in the urban landscape. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Water 6, e1323.

Bloomquist, C.K., Nielsen, C.K., 2010. Demography of Unexploited Beavers in Southern Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 74, 228–235.

Bloomquist, C.К., Nielsen, C.K., Shew, J.J., 2012. Spatial Organization of Unexploited Beavers (Castor canadensis) in Southern Illinois. Am. Midl. Nat. 167, 188–197.

Destefano, S., Koenen, K.K.G., Henner, C.M., Strules, J., 2006. Transition to independence by subadult beavers (Castor canadensis) in an unexploited, exponentially growing population. J. Zool. 269, 434–441.

Pietrek, A., Escobar, J.M., Fasola, L., Roesler, I., Schiavini, A., 2017. Why invasive Patagonian beavers thrive in unlikely habitats: a demographic perspective. J. Mammal. 98, 283–292.

Small, B.A., Frey, J.K., Gard, C.C., 2016. Livestock grazing limits beaver restoration in northern New Mexico. J. Soc. Ecol. Restor. 24, 646–655.

Ecosystem Engineering of Beavers: Benefits and Harms

Bartel, R.A., Haddad, N.M., Wright, J.P., Bartel, R.A., Haddad, N.M., Wright, J.P., 2010. Ecosystem engineers maintain a rare species of butterfly and increase plant diversity. Nord. Soc. Oikos 119, 883–890.

Collen, P., Gibson, R.J., 2001. The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish – a review. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10, 439–461.

Hood, G.A., Larson, D.G., 2015. Ecological engineering and aquatic connectivity: a new perspective from beaver-modified wetlands. Freshw. Biol. 60, 198–208.

Law, A., Gaywood, M.J., Jones, K.C., Ramsay, P., Willby, N.J., 2017. Using ecosystem engineers as tools in habitat restoration and rewilding: beaver and wetlands. Sci. Total Environ. 605–606, 1021–1030.

Law, A., Mclean, F., Willby, N.J., 2016. Habitat engineering by beaver benefits aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem processes in agricultural streams. Freshw. Biol. 61, 486–499.

Malison, R.L., Kuzishchin, K. V, Stanford, J.A., 2016. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains? PeerJ 4, e2403.

Malison, R.L., Lorang, M.S., Whited, D.C., Stanford, J.A., 2014. Beavers (Castor canadensis) influence habitat for juvenile salmon in a large Alaskan river floodplain. Freshw. Biol. 59, 1229–1246.

Martin, S.L., Jasinski, B.L., Kendall, A.D., Dahl, T.A., Hyndman, D.W., 2015. Quantifying beaver dam dynamics and sediment retention using aerial imagery, habitat characteristics, and economic drivers. Landsc. Ecol. 30, 1129–1144.

Nummi, P., Holopainen, S., 2014. Whole-community facilitation by beaver: ecosystem engineer increases waterbird diversity. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 24, 623–633.

Rosell, F., Bozsér, O., Collen, P., Parker, H., 2005. Ecological impact of beavers Castor fiber and Castor canadensis and their ability to modify ecosystems. Mamm. Rev. 35, 248–276.

Rozhkova-Timina, I.O., Popkov, V.K., Mitchell, P.J., Kirpotin, S.N., 2018. Beavers as ecosystem engineers – a review of their positive and negative effects. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 201.

Stevens, C.E., Paszkowski, C.A., Foote, A.L., 2007. Beaver (Castor canadensis) as a surrogate species for conserving anuran amphibians on boreal streams in Alberta, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 134, 1–13.

Factors Influencing Dam Establishments

Barnes, D.M., Mallik, A.U., 1996. Use of woody plants in construction of beaver dams in northern Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 74.

Barnes, D.M., Mallik, A.U., 1997. Habitat Factors Influencing Beaver Dam Establishment in a Northern Ontario Watershed. J. Wildl. Manage. 61, 1371–1377.

Mumma, M.A., Gillingham, M.P., Johnson, C.J., Parker, K.L., 2018. Where beavers (Castor canadensis) build: testing the influence of habitat quality, predation risk, and anthropogenic disturbance on colony occurrence. Can. J. Zool. 96, 897–904.

Swinnen, K., Rutten, A., Nyssen, J., Leirs, H., 2010. Environmental Factors Influencing Beaver Dam Locations. J. Wildl. 83, 1–9.

Human-Beaver Conflicts

Barnes, J., Dibble, A.N.D.E., 1988. The effects of beaver in riverbank forest succession. Can. J. Bot. 66, 40–44.

Curtis, P.D., Jensen, P.G., 2004. Habitat Features Affecting Beaver Occupancy along Roadsides in New York State. J. Wildl. Manage. 68, 278–287.

Donkor, N.T., Fryxell, J.M., 1999. Impact of beaver foraging on structure of lowland boreal forests of Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. For. Ecol. Manage. 118, 83–92.

Erlandsen, S.L., Sherlock, L., Bemrick, W.J., Ghobrial, H., 1990. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in Beaver and Muskrat Populations in Northeastern States and Minnesota: Detection of Intestinal Trophozoites at Necropsy Provides Greater Sensitivity than Detection of Cysts in Fecal Samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 31–36.

Fortin, C., Lizotte, M., 2007. Castors, routes et chemins de fer: une problématique méconnue. In Vivo (Brooklyn). 27, 8–10.

Jonker, S.A., Muth, R.M., Organ, J.F., Zwick, R.R., Siemer, W.F., 2006. Experiences with Beaver Damage and Attitudes of Massachusetts Residents Toward Beaver. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 34, 1009–1021.

Malison, R.L., Kuzishchin, K. V, Stanford, J.A., 2016. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains? PeerJ 4, e2403.

Martell, K.A., Foote, A.L., Cumming, S.G., Martell, K.A., Foote, A.L., Riparian, S.G.C., 2006. Implications for forest management Riparian disturbance due to beavers (Castor canadensis) in Alberta’s boreal mixedwood. Écoscience 13, 164–171.

Papier, C.M., Poulos, H.M., Kusch, A., 2019. Invasive species and carbon flux: the case of invasive beavers (Castor canadensis) in riparian Nothofagus forests of Tierra. Clim. Chang. 153, 219–234.

Touihri, M., Labbé, J., Imbeau, L., Darveau, M., 2018. North American Beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) key habitat characteristics: review of the relative effects of geomorphology, food availability and anthropogenic infrastructure. Écoscience 25, 9–23.

Tremblay, G., Valeria, O., Imbeau, L., 2017. Characterisation of Beaver Habitat Parameters That Promote the Use of Culverts as Dam Construction Sites: Can We Limit the Damage to Forest Roads? Forests 8, 494–507.

Westbrook, C.J., Cooper, D.J., Anderson, C.B., 2017. Alteration of hydrogeomorphic processes by invasive beavers in southern South America. Sci. Total Environ. 574, 183–190.

Managing Human-Beaver Conflicts Trapping

Buech, R., 1983. Modification of the Bailey Live Trap for Beaver. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 11, 66–68.

Gilbert, F., N., G., 1982. Terminal Dives in Mink, Muskrat and Beaver. Physiol. Behav. 28, 835–840.

Huffaker, R.G., Bhat, M.G., Lenhard, S.M., 1992. Optimal trapping strategies for diffusing nuisance-beaver populations. Nat. Resour. Model. 6, 71–97.

Koenen, K., Destefano, S., Henner, C., Beroldi, T. 2005. Capturing Beavers in Box Traps. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 33, 1153–1159.

Ludders, J.W., Schmidt, R.H., Dein, F.J., Klein, P.N., Ludders, J.W., Schmidt, R.H., Dein, F.J., Klein, P.N., 1999. Drowning is not euthanasia. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27, 666–670.

McKinstry, M., Anderson, S., 2002. Survival, Fates, and Success of Transplanted Beavers, Castor canadensis, in Wyoming. Can. Nat. 116, 60–68.

McKinstry, M.C., Anderson, S.H., 1998. Using snares to live-capture beaver, Castor canadensis. Can. Field-Naturalist 112, 469–473.

Powell, R.A., Proulx, G., 2003. Trapping and Marking Terrestrial Mammals for Research: Integrating Ethics, Performance Criteria, Techniques, and Common Sense. ILAR J. 44, 259–379.

Proulx, G., Barrett, M., 1989. Animal Welfare Concerns and Wildlife Trapping: Ethics, Standards and Commitments. 1989 Trans. West. Sect. Wildl. Soc. 25, 1–6.

Rosell, F., Hovde, B., 2001. Methods of aquatic and terrestrial netting to capture Eurasian beavers. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 29, 269–274.

Rosell, F., Kvinlaug, J.K., 1998. Methods for live-trapping beaver (Castor spp.). Aspen Bibliogr. 19, 1–28.

Southwick, R., 2007. Eliminating trapping escalates beaver complaints and costs to the public. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1, 141–143.

Vantassel, S., 2006. The Bailey Beaver Trap: Modifications and Sets to Improve Capture Rate a b. Proc. 22nd Vetrebrate Pest Conf. 22, 171–173.

Weaver, K., Arner, D., Mason, C., Hartley, J., 1985. A Guide to Using Snares for Beaver Capture. South. J. Appl. For. 9, 141–146.

Breaching of Dams

Billman, E.J., Kreitzer, J.D., Creighton, J.C., Habit, E., Mcmillan, B., Belk, M.C., 2013. Habitat enhancement and native fish conservation: can enhancement of channel complexity promote the coexistence of native and introduced fishes? Environ. Biol. Fishes 96, 555–566.

Butler, D.R., Malanson, G.P., 2005. The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams. Geomorphology 71, 48–60.

Collen, P., Gibson, R.J., 2001. The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish – a review. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10, 439–461.

Gibson, P.P., Olden, J.D., 2014. Ecology, management, and conservation implications of North American beaver (Castor canadensis) in dryland streams. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 24, 391–409.

Knudsen, G.J., 1962. Relationship of beaver to forests, trout and wildlife in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conserv. Dep. Tech. Bull. 25, 50.

Niles, J.M., Hartman, K.J., Keyser, P., 2013. Short-term Effects of Beaver Dam Removal on Brook Trout in an Appalachian Headwater Stream. Northeast. Nat. 20, 540–551.

Flow Devices

Boyles, S., Savitzky, B., 2009. An Analysis of the Efficacy and Comparative Costs of Using Flow Devices to Resolve Conflicts with North American Beavers Along Roadways in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. ICOET Proc. 411, 641–646.

Callahan, M., 2003. Beaver Management Study. AMWS Newsl. 44, 12–15. (USA) Region. North Am. J. Fish. Manag. 38, 1203–1225.

Callahan, M., 2005. Best Management Practices for Beaver Problems. AMWS Newsl. 53, 12–15.

Hood, G.A., Manaloor, V., Dzioba, B., 2018. Mitigating infrastructure loss from beaver flooding: A cost – benefit analysis. Hum. Dimens. Wildl. 23, 146–159.

Lisle, S., 2001. Beaver management at the Penobscot nation, USA: using flow devices to protect property and create wetlands. Proc. Eur. Beaver Symp. 2, 147–156.

Simon, L.J., 2006. Solving Beaver Flooding Problems through the Use of Water Flow Control Devices. Proc. Twelfth Vertebr. Pest Conf. 22, 174–180.

Taylor, J.D., Singleton, R.D., 2014. The Evolution of Flow Devices Used to Reduce Flooding by Beavers: A Review. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 38, 127–133.

General Management Papers:

Beck, J.L., Dauwalter, D.C., Gerow, K.G., Hayward, G.D., 2010. Design to monitor trend in abundance and presence of American beaver (Castor canadensis) at the national forest scale. Environ. Monit. Assess. 164, 463–479.

Bhat, M., Huffaker, R.A.Y.G., Lenhart, S.M., 1993. Controlling Forest Damage by Dispersive Beaver Populations: Centralized Optimal Management Strategy. Ecol. Appl. 3, 518–530.

DeStefano, S., Deblinger, R., 2005. Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: a suburban wildlife management model. Urban Ecosyst. 8, 179–190.

Jensen, P.G., Curtis, P.D., Lehnert, M.E., Hamelin, D.L. 2001. Habitat and structural factors influencing beaver interference with highway culverts. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 29, 654–664.

Johnson-Bice, S.M., Renik, K.M., Windels, S.K., Hafs, A.W., 2018. A Review of Beaver – Salmonid Relationships and History of Management Actions in the Western Great Lakes (USA) Region. North Am. J. Fish. Manag. 38, 1203–1225.

Longcore, T., Rich, C., Muller-Schwarze, D., 2007. Management by Assertion: Beavers and Songbirds at Lake Skinner Riverside County, California). Environ. Manage. 39, 460–471.

Payne, N., Peterson, R., 1986. Trends in Complaints of Beaver Damage in Wisconsin. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14, 303–307.

Riley, S.J., Decker, D.J., Carpenter, L.H., Organ, J.F., William, F., Mattfeld, G.F., Parsons, G., 2002. The Essence of Wildlife Management. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 30, 585–593.

Beaver Manuals by Government or Other Agencies

Animal Protection Party of Canada & Animal Alliance of Canada. 2016. Techniques for Mitigating Human/Beaver Conflicts in Urban and Suburban Environments. Available at:

D’Eon, R., LaPinte, R., Bosnick, N., Davies, C., MacLean, B., Watt, W., Wilson, G., 1995. The beaver handbook: a guide to understanding and coping with beaver activity. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northeast Science and Technology, FG-006, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Canada.

Jennifer Rae Pierce. 2016. Understanding and Managing Beavers in Vancouver. Available at:

La Fondation de la Faune du Québec. 2001. Guide D’Aménagement et de Gestion Du Territoire Utilisé par le Castor au Québec. Available at:

Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. 2001. Beaver Management Guidelines. Available at:

Province of British Columbia. Management Guidelines in British Columbia, Beaver.

The British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals [BCSPCA]. 2018. Wildlife and Rodent Control Standards. Available at:

United States Department of Agriculture. 2005. How to Keep Beavers from Plugging Culverts. Available at:

Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department. 2002. Best Management Practices for Resolving Human-Beaver Conflicts in Vermont. Available at:

Physiological Knowledge of Beavers (includes both Castor canadensis and Castor fiber)

Gruninger, R.J., Mcallister, T.A., Forster, R.J., 2016. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis). PLoS One 11, e0156457.

Stefen, C., Habersetzer, J., Witzel, U., 2016. Biomechanical aspects of incisor action of beavers (Castor fiber L.). J. Mammal. 97, 619–630.

Predator-Prey Interactions

Baker, B., Peinetti, H., Coughenour, M., Johnson, T., 2012. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem. Ecosphere 3(11), 1–15.

Gable, T., Windels, S., 2018. Kill Rates and Predation Rates of Wolves on Beavers. J. Wildl. Manage. 82, 466–472.

Gable, T.D., Windels, S.K., Bruggink, J.G., Homkes, A.T., 2016. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis). PLoS One 11, e0165537.

Latham, A.D.M., Latham, M.C., Knopff, K.H., Hebblewhite, M., Boutin, S., 2013. Wolves, white-tailed deer, and beaver: implications of seasonal prey switching for woodland caribou declines. Ecography (Cop.). 36, 1276–1290.

Tadich, T.A., Novaro, A.J., Kunzle, P., Chacón, M., Barrientos, M., Briceño, C., 2018. Agonistic behavior between introduced beaver (Castor canadensis) and endemic culpeo fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides) in Tierra del Fuego Island and implications. Acta Ethol. 21, 29–34.

Public or Stakeholder Perceptions of Beavers

Jonker, S.A., Muth, R.M., Organ, J.F., Zwick, R.R., Siemer, W.F., 2006. Experiences with Beaver Damage and Attitudes of Massachusetts Residents Toward Beaver. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 34, 1009–1021.

Jonker, S.A., Organ, J.F., Muth, R.M., Zwick, R.R., Siemer, W.F., 2009. Stakeholder Norms Toward Beaver Management in Massachusetts. J. Wildl. Manage. 73, 1158–1165.

McKinstry, M., Anderson, S., 1999. Attitudes of Private- and Public-Land Managers in Wyoming, USA, Toward Beaver. Environ. Manage. 23, 95–101.

Morzillo, A.T., Needham, M.D., 2015. Landowner Incentives and Normative Tolerances for Managing Beaver Impacts. Hum. Dimens. Wildl. 20, 514–530.

Organ, J.F., Ellingwood, M.R., 2008. Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity for Black Bears, Beavers, and Other Beasts in the East. Hum. Dimens. Wildl. 5, 63–75.

Payne, N., Peterson, R., 1986. Trends in Complaints of Beaver Damage in Wisconsin. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14, 303–307.

Santo, A.R., Guillozet, K., Sorice, M.G., Baird, T.D., Gray, S., Donlan, C.J., Anderson, C.B., 2017. Examining Private Landowners’ Knowledge Systems for an Invasive Species. Hum. Ecol. 45, 449–462.

Siemer, W., Jonker, S., Decker, D., Organ, J., 2013. Toward an understanding of beaver management as human and beaver densities increase. Human-Wildlife Interact. 7, 114–131.

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